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The section of this work which deals with the invasion of Alexander Alexander the Great may claim to make a-special appeal to Great the interest of readers trained in the ordinary course of classical studies ; and the subject has been treated ac- cordingly with much fullness of detail. The historian of the remote past of any nation must be content to rely much upon tradition as embodied in litera- ture, and to acknowledge that the results of his researches, when based upon traditionary materials, are inferior in certainty to those obtainable for periods of which the facts are attested by contemporary evidence. The systems which we call Jainism and Buddhism had Jainism their roots in the forgotten speculations of the prehistoric past ; but, as we know them, were founded respectively by hism. Both these philosophers, who were for nuiny years contemporary, were born, lived, and died in or near the kingdom of Magadha, the modern South Bihar. If our authorities may be believed,, the reign of Bimbisara lasted for twenty- eight years j and it is said that, towards its close, he resigned the royal power into the hands of his favourite son, and retired into private life. ’ These heretics were seen by Fa-hien at Grivas ti in or about A. They regu- larly make offerings to the three previous Buddhas, but not to Sakyamuni [sot7. MAHAVIRA AND BUDDHA 38 gin, and in all ages the unsuccessful heretic has been branded as a villain by the winning sect. Although the army had not passed the river, these ii Tassive memorials are alleged by Pliny, who seems to have been misinformed, to have been erected on the farther bank, where they long r emaim idlo excite the wonder and veneration of both natives and foreigners.'^ Traces of them may still exist, and should be looked for along the oldest bed of the Bias, near the hills, in one or other of the three districts — Gurdaspur, Hosh- yarpur, or Kangra — where nol)ody, except Vigne®, has yet sought them. The tale is given in its fullest form by Diodorus, ' 'A\f(av Spos piv o Zv 'Hpax Xia ripwv KOI ird Air 'AKi^aydpov 'Av Spi- Ku TTOij (av Toirs (Is TO Tipda&ai irpoijyov (itro Tuiv dpoim'. Ixii, states that ■ he also erected altars for the gods which the kings of the Praisiai l.'ci V.

The existing English accounts of Alexander's marvellous campaign, among which that of Thirlwall, perhaps, is entitled to the highest place, treat the story as an appendi.x to the history of Greece rather than as part of that of India, and fail to make full use of the results of the labours of modern geographers and archaeologists. In India, with very few exceptions, contemporary evidence of any kind is not available before the time of Alexander ; but critical examina tion of records dated much later than the events referred t© can extract from them testimony which may be regarded with a high degree of probability as traditionally transmitted from the sixth or, perhaps, the seventh century b.c. knowledge of the art seems to have xxxiii (1904) ) ; ‘On the Oripn of gradually spread to the north, the Brahma and Kharofthi Alpha- where probably it became widely beta’ (two papers, in Sitdi. Mahavira, the son of a nobleman of Vaisali, the famous city north of the Ganges, was nearly re- lated to the royal family of Magadha, and died at Pawa, in the modern district of Patna, within the territory of that kingdom. But the young prince was impatient, and could not bear to await the slow process of nature. Such, probably, is the origin of the numerous tales concerning the villanies of Devadatta, including the supposed incitement of his princely patron to commit the crime of parricide. aatriip, ^ of satrap, with tno T' of ooiiupt Creek legend. The judicious Arrian simply records that : — ‘ Alexander divided the army into brigades, which he ordered to prepare tuelve altars eijual in height to the loftiest military towers, while exceeding them in breadth ; to serve both as thank-offerings to the gods who had led him ’ The address of Koinos, which superato tamen amne, arisque in is given in full by Arrian, seems to adversa ripa dicatis ’ Pliny, /list. ' Thus Alexander, honouring Hercules, and Andro- kottos [stci V. d., ' How One can Praise oneself with- out exciting Envy,' § 10, m Mura U, cd. Magadha] even to the present day hold in veneration, crossing the river to offer sacrifices upon them in the Hellenic fashion Ar- rian, Curtius, and Diodorus agree that there were twelve altars. 28, and wa.s contemporary with Euthydemos I or Demetrios.

It is not intended to be an encyclopaedia of Indian antiquities, iis some critics seem to think that it ought to be. Sundry' matters in the history of Harslia, including the date of his death, have been corrected. The complicated history of the Kingdoms of the North has been extensively re- vised, e.specially in the sections dealing Avith Kanaiij and Bengal. INTRODUCTION The illustrious Elphinstone, writing in 1839, observed that ^hin- ^ in Indian history ‘ no date of a public event can be fixed Cowell on before the invasion of Alexander; and no connected relation the Hindu ' Dcno G* of the national transactions can be attempted until after the Mahometan conquest Professor Cowell, when commenting upon this dictum, twenty-seven years later, begged his readers to bear it in mind during the w'hole of the Hindu period ; assigning as his reason for this caution the fact that ‘ it is only at those points where other nations came into contact with the Hindus, that we are able to settle any details accurately.’ ^ Although the first clause of Elphinstone’s proposition, if strictly interpreted, still remains true — no date in Indian history prior to Alexander’s invasion being determinable with absolute precision — modern research has much weakened the force of the observation, and has enabled scholars to fix a considerable number of dates in the pre-Alexandrine history of India with approximate accuracy, sufficient for most purposes. East and West studies in the shape of a ‘connected relation’; not less in- telligible to the ordinary educated reader than Elphinstone’s narrative of the transactions of the Muhammadan period. Alexander, moving in a direction more easterly than Middle Id'fore, crossed the Akesines (Chinrib) at a point not specified, hut certainly near the foot of the hills. river, although unopposed, was difficult by reason of tlie rapid current of the flooded stream, which was 3,00t) yards (15 stadia) in width, and of the large and jagged rocks with uhich the channel was bestrewn, and on wlvich many of the lioafs were wrecked.* 'Pile king, having made adequate arrangements for supplies, Passage of reinforcements, and the maintenance of communications, ' . Alexander selected as the adversaries worthy of his steel the more important confederacy of independent tribes which was headed by the Kathaioi, who dwelt upon the left or eastern side of the Hydraotes, and enjoyed the highest repu- tation for skill in the art of war.

The History of Fine Art in India and Ceylon (1911), planned as a companion volume in order to give the history of Indian artistic utterance so far as it can be recovered, renders unnecessary any detailed account of the subject in this work. The contentious questions connected Avith the Kushan dynasty ha A c been treated afresh, ^'he Appendix entitled • The so-called Chinese Postages of Kanishka ’ (L in second edition), though perfectly sound, has been omitted in •der to save space. A suixey of the intellectual chie A'eracnts of the Gupta period has been in- erted, and corrections in certjiin details have been nade. Appendix O, ‘ The Origin and Chro- nology of the Sena Dynasty,' is new. The emendations in the story' of the Kingdoms of the Deccan are of a minor character. The abundfmce of new data fosp the reconstruction of the history of the Kingdoms of the South has necessitated numerous and im- portant alterations. But when the statement that a connected narrative of Results of events prior to the Muhammadan eomjuest cannot be pre- pared is examined in the light of present knowledge, the immense progress in the recovery of the lost history of India made during the last seventy years Itecomes apparent. The first attempt to present su^h a narrative of the leading events in Indian political history for eighteen centuries was made in the first edition of this book, which, even in its now much expanded form, is still designedly confined for the most part to the relation of political vicissitudes. See ante, plate ‘ Indian coins miles above Waziriibad, where Mc- and medals, if, fig. Their neighbours, the Oxydrakai, wlio occupied the basin of the Hyphasis, and the Malloi, u’ho u’cre settled along the lower course of the Hydraotes below Lahore, and were also famous as brave warriors, intended to join the tribal league, but had not actually done so at this time.

An overdue charge of 25 ^dse per day will be charged for the first two days and SO Paise from the third day the book is kept overtime. Vowels have values as in Italian ; except the iv PREFACE short a, which is pronounced like u in buty when with stress, and like ^ in America, when without stress.

Na K2.(;q-7 This book should be retoroed oq m before the date tan stamped below. TO THE MUHAMMADAN CONQUEST INCLUDING THE INVASION OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT BY VINCENT A. The system of transliteration followed in the notes and appendices is substantially that used in the Indian Antiquai'y ; while in the text long vowels only are marked where necessary, and a U other diacritical signs are discarded.

Notwithstand- ing constant effort to avoid prolixity and wearisome details, material enlargement, compensated in some measure by certain omissions, has proved inevitable. X , Sas--Naii Jiin tvpe Legend, irii])ci- foot, Stimad Adi-rai Ti- Af», * the foitunate pri- iiiueval hoar’, a title of bdih Viehi^u and tlie king. The king of tlie lower liills, vvlio is called Abi.sares by the Greek writers, finding resistance hopeless, again tendered his submission. Chinab has changed its course very ' These particulars given by Ar- considerably, and lower down has a'l* clearly prove that the wandered over a bed about 30 miles Akesines was crossed near the in breadth (Raverty, op. toot of the hill, some 25 or 30 74 ALEXANDER’S INDIAN CAMPAIGN The inde- pendent tribes. continued ins advance eastwards, probably passing close to tbe ancient fortress of Sialkot.

Readers are invited to remember that the book was designed to be, and still is, primarily a political history. Another Poros, nephew of the defeated monarch, and ruler of a tract called Gandaris, sent envoys promising allegiance to the imincible invader, and sundry independent tribes (rt Sc avro- I'd/jwi' ’Ivdwi’) followed the example of these princes. The Hydraot es (Ravi) river having been crossed without difficulty, Hephaistion was sent back in order to reduce to obedience the younger Poros, who had revolted owing to feelings of resentment at the excessive favour shown to his uncle and enemy.

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Although the names of even the greatest monarchs of ancient India are at present unfamiliar to the general reader, and awaken few echoes in the minds of any save specialists, it is not un- reasonable to hope that an orderly presentation of the ascertained facts of ancient Indian history may be of interest to a larger circle than that of professed orientalists, and that, ‘ The Maxime and lisflectiom of Ooethe, No, 385, in Bailey Saunders's translation. He has only to consider how far the statement of the case is complete and clearly set forth by the evidence. histories, and are mostly religious treatises of various kinds. But the researches at this most interest- ing spot amount only to a pre- liminary reconnaissance. He urged his sovereign to remember that out of tlie Greeks and Macedonians who liad crossed tlie Hellespont eiglit years earlier, some had been invalided home, some were unwilling exiles in newly founded cities, some were disabled by wounds, and others, the most iiuinerous, had perished by the sword or disease. Rodgers conclusively proved this identification to be erroneous (i Je- poi't on Sani/nlo News Press, Lahore, Ih Oii; I’roc. Alex- ander, deeply mortified, and unwilling to yield, retired within his tent ; but emerged on the third day, convinced that further advance was impracticable. THE ALTARS 77 so fiir on the path of conquest, and as a memorial of his achievements. Her type of civilization, too, has many features which differentiate it from that of all other regions of the world, while they are common to the whole country, or rather sub-continent, in a degree sufficient to justify its treatment as a unit in the history of the social, religious, and intellectual development of mankind. In order to be avail- able for the purpose of history, events must be susceptible of arrangement in definite chronological order, and capable of being dated approximately, if not exactly. The most ancient literary traditions, compiled probably in the fourth or fifth century B. But the Brahmanical Puranas, compiled centuries later in honour of the orthodox deities,^ happily include lists 59', E. in Nep&l, District of Muzaffarpw, situated as formerly advocated by me in about 27 miles a little west of north J. ‘ “ For that, O king, is custom in the discipline of the noble ones, that whosoever looks upon his fault as a fault, and rightfully confesses it, shall attain to self-restraint in future.” ^When he had thus spoken, Ajatasatru the king said to the Blessed One, “^Now, Lord, we would fain go. These figures are improbably high, and it is unlikely that the two reigns actually occupied more than fifty years. The evidence as far as it goes, and at best it does not amount to much, indicates that the average length of the later reigns was in excess of the normal figure. XXV, 5, ’[ 4 Ilin ishkii Portrait bust of king , legend 111 luodined Cieek seiipt. city from which Alexander started on his march to the Hydaspes. Tarn, ^ Notes on Hellenism in Bactria and India' {J. But the complete political unity of India under the control of a paramount power, wielding unquestioned authority, is a thing of yesterday, barely a century old,* The most notable of her rulers in the olden time cherished the ambition of universal Indian dominion, and severally attained it in a greater or less degree. Facts to which dates cannot lie assigned, although they may be invaluable for the purposes of ethnology, philology, and other sciences, are of no use to the historian. c., but looking back to an older time, enumerate sixteen of such states or powers, extending from Gandh&ra, on the * J. We are busy, and there is much to do.” ‘ “ Do, O king, whatever seemeth to thee fit.” ‘Then Ajatasatru the king, pleased and delighted with the words of the Blessed One, arose from his seat, and bowed to the Blessed One, and keeping him on the right hand as he passed him, departed thence. We may assume, therefore, that the first four reigns, about which nothing is known, must have been comparatively short, and did not exceed some seventy or eighty years collectively. Although Cunningham’s description of the remains of the city is in many respects inadequate, his identification of the ruins at and near Shahdheri with the site of Taxila is certainly correct. 343 and 414 {Ost- history of Parthiais too imperfectly asiatische Zeitschrift, I, 3641. i B practicable, in the form of a connected narrative, ® based upon the moat authentic evidence available ; to relate facts, however established, with impartiality: and to discuss the problems of history in a judicial spirit. Nor is it possible for the writer of a history, however great may be his respect for the objective fact, to eliminate altogether his own personality. 241- may have been introduced by mer- 89) ; Bilhler, ‘ Indische Palaeo- chants on the south-western coast graphic ’ (Grvndrm Indo-Ar. * The complete list will be found in Rhys Davids’s Buddhist India, p. The first two chapters of that work furnish full references to the Pali texts which give information about the clans and states in the fifth and sixth centuries. He was, apparently, the king, or Raja, of a petty state, c. Nothing is known about his history, except the statement that he placed his son in Benares, and himself took up his abode at Girivraja near Rajagriha. Devadatta certainly refused to accept the teaching of Gautama, and, preferring that of ‘ the former Buddhas ’, became the founder and head of a rival sect, which still survived in the seventh century after Christ.® Schism has always been esteemed by the orthodox a deadly * The Lichchhavis occupy a pro- minent place in the Buddhist ec- clesiastical legends. For the Tibetan affini- ties of the Lichchhavis see Ind. Gautama Buddha occurred in the early years of the reign of Ajatasatru, not much later. One of the most ancient Buddhist documents narrates in detail the story of a visit paid to Buddha by Ajatasatru, who is alleged to have expressed remorse for his crime, and to have professed his faith in Buddha, who accepted his con- fession of sin. ‘ He further the story continues, 'ordered quarters to be constructed as for foot-soldiers, eacli containing two beds 4 cubits in length for each man ; and besides this, two stalls of twice the ordinary size for each horseman. He has striven to realize, however imperfectly, the ideal expressed in the words of Goethe : — ‘The historian’s duty is to separate the true from the false, the certain from the uncertain, and the doubtful from that which cannot be accepted. Every kind of evidence, even the most direct, must reach the reader, when presented in narrative form, as a reflection from the mirror of the writer’s mind, with the liability to unconscious distortion. Professor Rhys Davids is inclined to attri- bute higher antiquity to the Pali Buddhist scriptures thsui some other scholars can admit. 35° 30 THE DYNASTIES BEFORE ALEXANDER Kosala The neighbouring realm of Kosala, the modern kingdom and Kasi, Qudh, was closely connected with Magadha by many ties ; and its capital Sravasti (Savatthi), situated on the upper course of the Rapti near the foot of the hills, was the reputed scene of many of Buddha^s most striking discourses.^ In the sixth century b.c. The sec'ond, third, and fourth kings, likewise, are mere names. The Jains spell the name as Lachchhaki (Pra- krit, Lechehhai) (Jacobi, S. There is reason to believe that the latter event took place in or about the year 487 b.c.‘ Gautama Buddha was certainly an old man when Ajata- Interview satru, or Kunika, as the Jains call him, came to the throne about 502 or 600 b.c. The concluding passage of the Oile may le quoted as an illustration of an ancient Buddhist view of the relations between Church and State. ' Head of satrap, with modi- lied Gjeek legr star, moon . Whatever else was to be left behind u'as directed to be likewise proportionately increased in size.’ We are asked to believe that these silly proceedings were intended to convince the country people that the invaders had been men of more than ordinary strength and stature.^ It is incredible tliat Alexander could have been guilty of such senseless folly, and the legend may be rejected without hesitation as being probably based on distorted versions of tales told by travellers who had seen the altars.

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