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It is now clear that carbon-14 is not homogeneously distributed among today’s plants and animals.

The occasional exceptions all involve nonatmospheric contributions of carbon-14-depleted carbon dioxide to organic synthesis.

With correction for radioactive decay during the intervening years, such old samples hopefully would show the same starting carbon-14 level as exists today. His conclusion was that over the past 5,000 years the carbon-14 level in living materials has remained constant within the 5 percent precision of measurement.

A dating method was thus available, subject only to confirmation by actual application to specific chronologic problems.

Until then, the inherent error from this uncertainty must be recognized.

A final problem of importance in carbon-14 dating is the matter of sample contamination.

Radioactive carbon thus was visualized as gaining entrance wherever atmospheric carbon dioxide enters—into land plants by photosynthesis, into animals that feed on the plants, into marine and fresh waters as a dissolved component, and from there into aquatic plants and animals.It relies instead on the progressive decay or disappearance of the radioactive parent with time.The discovery of natural Willard Libby of the United States began with his recognition that a process that had produced radiocarbon in the laboratory was also going on in Earth’s upper atmosphere—namely, the bombardment of nitrogen by free neutrons.So low is such a carbon-14 level that no one had detected natural carbon-14 until Libby, guided by his own predictions, set out specifically to measure it.His success initiated a series of measurements designed to answer two questions: Is the concentration of carbon-14 uniform throughout the plant and animal kingdoms?

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